Vitamin D, total calcium and digestible phosphorus in swine nutrition: nutritional recommendations

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Jimmy Quisirumbay-Gaibor


Food, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals, pigs


Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus are essential nutrients necessary for efficient bone mineralization, immuno-modulation and reproduction. Vitamin D is synthesized in the body after exposure to sunlight, it can also be provided through the diet in its D2 and D3 forms. In recent years the 25-OH-D3 form has been used in animal feed with better results than the D3 form due to its greater bioavailability. Its deficiency produces alterations in the development of the bone system known as rickets and osteomalacia in young and adult pigs respectively. There is a great advance in the knowledge of the nutritional requirements of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus for the swine species, so several original research articles, reviews and nutritional guides have been published. Among the latter are NRC, NSNG, Brazilian Tables, FEDNA and others developed by the supplier industry of additives and genetics of swine of recognized world prestige. The suggested values ​​vary among the different sources of information related largely to the conditions in which they were developed (experimental, commercial or field type). However, it is the nutritionist who must be able to adapt these values ​​to their production conditions and objectives. The purpose of this manuscript is to present in a summarized way the nutritional recommendations of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus providing a valuable content for the nutritionist dedicated to the feeding and formulation of diets for pigs.
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