Validez y confiabilidad en la evaluación del aprendizaje mediante las metodologías activas

Contenido principal del artículo

María del R. Medina-Díaz https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0197-2480
Ada L. Verdejo-Carrión https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9522-3116

Resumen

Las exigencias en la educación universitaria demandan cambios en las estrategias de enseñanza y en las técnicas y los instrumentos que contribuyen a evaluar el aprendizaje estudiantil. Las metodologías activas, como parte de estas estrategias, facilitan el desarrollo de determinados aprendizajes o competencias, mediante situaciones o problemas vinculados con el mundo laboral y social. Esto requiere replantear, planificar y orientar la enseñanza centrada en el estudiantado y utilizar técnicas e instrumentos para recoger información que conduzcan a emitir juicios apropiados, certeros y justos de los aprendizajes. Sin embargo, no se ha prestado mucha atención a la validez y la confiabilidad de las interpretaciones de las puntuaciones o la información recopilada con estos instrumentos para el uso propuesto, según se desprende de las publicaciones revisadas. El propósito de este trabajo es aportar a la discusión de la validez y confiabilidad de las puntuaciones o la información recopilada con los instrumentos aplicados en las aulas universitarias. Se consultaron varias publicaciones especializadas y se presentan algunas recomendaciones acerca de las fuentes de evidencia para sustentar la validez y la confiabilidad. Como mínimo, se sugiere la evidencia relacionada con el contenido y la consistencia de las puntuaciones o la información, al emitir juicios y tomar decisiones que afectan al estudiantado. Se concluye que se necesita mayor prudencia en las interpretaciones e inferencias de los aprendizajes, si no existe suficiente evidencia de la validez.
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