Artículo Científico / Scientific Paper 



https://doi.org/10.17163/ings.n24.2020.04 


pISSN: 1390650X / eISSN: 1390860X 

PROPOSAL FOR IMPLANTATION OF COFFEE DRYING GREENHOUSE
WITH PARABOLIC COVER AND ADAPTED MODULAR STRUCTURE 

PROPUESTA DE IMPLANTACIÓN DE INVERNADERO DE SECADO DE CAFÉ CON CUBIERTA PARABÓLICA Y ESTRUCTURA MODULAR ADAPTADA 
Bryan BriceñoMartínez^{1,*}, Jairo CastilloCalderón^{1}, Rubén CarriónJaura^{1}, Diego DíazSinche^{1} 
Abstract 
Resumen 
The present work proposes a greenhouse for coffee drying, constituted
by a parabolic solar cover and adapted modular structure. It started with a planimetric survey made using different engineering and
architecture software, such as: SolidWorks y Revit Architecture. For the
experiment, reverse engineering principles based on an existing structure, were used to develop a modular coupling model, in order to
establish interactions between mechanisms and structure. The study
demonstrated that the design of the assembly couplings facilitates their
mobilization, reduces costs and allows the application of accessible
materials for the solar parabolic dryer (marquee). Also,
the coffee drying curves in a parabolic type solar dryer and their time are
shown in Statgraphics. The result of the model with
modular armature couplings was correctly associated with the existing
experimental results, allowing to compare the time
and efficiency of the coffee drying. 
El presente trabajo propone un invernadero destinado al secado de café formado por una cubierta solar parabólica y estructura modular adaptada. Se inició a través de un levantamiento planimétrico elaborado por diferentes softwares de ingeniería y arquitectura como: SolidWorks y Revit Architecture. Para el experimento se utilizó principios de ingeniería inversa, tomando como base, una estructura ya existente para desarrollar un modelo de acople modular, con el fin de establecer interacciones entre mecanismos y estructura. El estudio demostró que el diseño de los acoples de armado, facilitan su movilización, reducen costos y permiten la aplicación de materiales accesibles para el secador parabólico solar (marquesina), adicionalmente se presentan curvas de secado de café en un secador solar tipo parabólico y su tiempo representados en Statgraphics. El resultado del modelo con acoples de armado modular se asoció correctamente con resultados experimentales existentes, permitiendo realizar comparaciones entre tiempo y eficiencia del secado de café. 


Keywords: reverse
engineering, design, marquee, manufacturing, parabolic, Statgraphics. 
Palabras clave: ingeniería
inversa, diseño, marquesina, manufactura, parabólica, Statgraphics. 
^{1,*}Facultad de Energía las Industrias y los Recursos Naturales no Renovables, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Ecuador. Corresponding ✉: bryan.briceno@unl.edu.ec. http://orcid.org/0000000294283341 http://orcid.org/0000000253214518 http://orcid.org/0000000320686882
http://orcid.org/0000000349107151


Received: 27112019, accepted after review: 09052020
Suggested citation: BriceñoMartínez, B.;
CastilloCalderón, J.; CarriónJaura,
R. and DíazSinche, D. (2020). «Proposal for
implantation of coffee drying greenhouse with parabolic cover and adapted
modular structure». Ingenius. N.◦ 24, (julydecember). pp. 3646. doi: https://doi.org/10.17163/ings.n24.2020.04. 
1. Introduction The worldwide
coffee sector constitutes an important livelihood for millions of people,
especially in developing countries. In its global production, South America
represents the 47 %, followed by Asia and Oceania with 29 %, Central America
and Mexico with 13 %, and Africa with 11 %. The production of Brazil, the
worldwide leading coffee producer, increased 5.6 % and was 57.4 million of
bags, among which was part of the harvest from April 2018 to March 2019. It is calculated that the consumption of coffee in South
America increased 1.8 % and was 26.97 million of bags, after an increment of
3.5 % in 2016/2017 [1]. The use of solar energy in the agricultural sector is growing due to
the price increase of the fuels, the environmental pollution and the
forecasted depletion of conventional fossil fuels. The drying using solar
energy is one of the most attractive and promising applications in rural
areas. Usually, agricultural crops are dried by
exposing them to the sun, which contributes to extend the useful life of the
harvested products, thus improving the quality, position and business of the
farmer, with the purpose of maintaining a constant price in their products. The direct sun drying requires an open space of large area, and mostly
depends on the availability of sunlight, which is susceptible to the
pollution with foreign materials such as dust, garbage and other chemicals
that may be dragged out by the wind, as well as
birds, insects and rodents. Similarly, most of the agricultural products
intended to be stored should be first dried, because they
could be affected by insect pests and fungi that easily develop when there
are humid conditions, thus becoming unusable [2]. In a peak day it can be obtained an equivalent of 2.0 % of the total
yearly production of washed coffee (drained), in a farm with a production of
2500 kg c.p., for which it is required 3.3 ^{2}
of floor, having a layer with a maximum height of 3 cm [3]. With the purpose of enabling a better utilization of the solar energy,
reducing the cost and facilitating the construction, operation and
maintenance, a parabolic solar dryer was improved, which will
be called marquee. Just like the solar tunnel dryer, it is constituted by a metal structure, a transparent plastic
cover, cemented floor, rolling gates of transparent plastic and a door for
internal access. The solar dryer facilitates an acceptable quality of the
coveted product with a low environmental impact, and thus it is an effective,
inexpensive and safe method for drying agricultural and food products. 
Figure 1 shows the marquee which occupies a total
area of 18 m^{2}, with a concrete floor that helps to make it a clean
area, and houses two shelving columns with six drying beds, each of 6 m^{2}
, which are exposed to the there is rain present,
or when the estimated temperature is not the correct one; therefore, the
height of the drying beds above the floor level is 0.60 m, thus reducing the
possibility that the coffee gets contaminated as a result of the trampling of
the workers, or by the accidental entry of animals [4].
Figure 1. Marquee. 1.1. Solar
drying In general, the
solar dryers are classified in three categories, as
shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Classification of solar dryers [4]. In this context, this work will focus on the direct solar dryer,
because the moisture of the product to be dried is
eliminated by its direct exposure to sunlight, with or without natural
air circulation [4]. A schematic view of the direct solar dryer is indicated in Figure 3. 
The direct solar dryer has a drying chamber, an insulated box wrapped
with a glass or plastic transparent cover, which has holes for letting the
air move in and out of the chamber [5]. When the solar radiation affects the
glass or plastic cover, the air warms and circulates naturally, or by wind
pressure using an external source or a combination of both.
Figure 3. Direct solar dryer [5]. The construction of the direct solar dryer is simple and cheaper, and
protects the product being dried from dust, rain,
debris, dews, etc.; however, it also presents some drawbacks in its
operation, such as product overheating, undesirable quality and limited
drying capacity [6]. Tomar and Norton [7] developed a crop dryer consisting of a solar air
heater and a tunnel dryer, for drying a variety of agricultural products, as
can be seen in Figure 4. In comparison with the traditional solar drying
methods, the drying time and the massive losses were
significantly reduced with the amortization period of 13 years. For
example, it was reported that the energy necessary for drying 1000 kg of
grapes varies from 11.2 to 23.0 kWh depending on the weather conditions, with
a cost between 1.2 and 2.0 USD which was absolutely
insignificant as compared to the additional profit. However, the
dissemination of the solar drying system to a particular area depends on the
availability of electricity and of its needs.
Figure 4. Solar tunnel dryer [7]. 
Neama and Farkas [8] presented an experimental
study to increase the crop drying efficiency using a photovoltaic cell. The
dryer reached a temperature of 76 °C and reduced the moisture content between
50 % and 60 %. The schematic view of the solar dryer with photovoltaic cell is shown in Figure 5. Ogheneruona and Yusuf [9] designed and manufactured a direct natural convection
solar dryer for drying tapioca, and reported a reduction of the moisture
content from 79 % to 10 % wet basis at environmental conditions (32 °C and 74
% of relative humidity).
Figure 5. Photovoltaic solar dryer [9]. Tefera et al. [10] evaluated the performance of wooden box and
pyramidal shape direct solar potato dryers, which reduced the general drying
time between 2 and 3 hours compared to the open sun drying. The pyramidal
dryer performed better in the generation of a more favorable drying
environment, with a better economic viability. Similarly, Eke and Arinze [11]
developed a prototype of a direct natural convection solar dryer made with
clay, for drying corn. It was observed that the
moisture content was reduced from 29 to 12 % wet basis, achieving a 55 %
savings in drying time against open sun drying. It was found that the drying
efficiency of the dryer and of the open sun drying method were 45.6 % and
22.7 %, respectively. Therefore, the direct solar dryers are the devices mostly used for
drying agricultural and food products. It is observed
that the mean drying efficiency of direct solar dryers varies from 20 to 40 %
depending on the types of products, the flow of air, and the drying location.
The quality of the product obtained using direct solar dryers is acceptable,
and can be improved by means of the use of certain
types of pretreatment chemical processes. 2. Materials and
methods For the case study it was taken as reference the León Farm, located in
the Loja canton, Vilcabamba parish. 
This farm has a
parabolic solar dryer (marquee) consisting of a structure, shelving, and six
drying beds of 6 m2 , which will be planimetrically surveyed for the design of the modular
couplings for its easy mobilization and construction. The measurement
equipment utilized for the survey were flexometer,
laser distance meter and goniometer. The steps followed in this research were acquisition of real
measurements, the 3D planimetric survey, the
conversion of the survey to a real environment using the Rendering software,
the analysis of modular couplings and the graphical comparison of the
efficiency of the time and the drying of the coffee. 2.1. Extent of
the research This research
spanned a period of four months (interval between June 2019 and September
2019). The collection of data and valuable information was
consulted in the following documents: i) NTE
INEN 2507 [12], ii) Ecuadorian Standard of Construction NEC11, chapter 14
Renewable Energy [13]. 2.2. Planimetric survey Dimensions of
all the components that constitute the marquee are
presented, as indicated in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Marquee prior to taking the measurements. The dimensions of the marquee are 3 m high, 3 m wide and 6 m long; it consists of six beds for coffee drying, with dimensions 1 m wide x 6 m long. Figures 7 
and 8 show the coffee drying
beds located on the left and right hand sides, respectively, of the marquee.
Figure 7. Coffee drying beds located on the left hand side
inside the marquee.
Figure 8. Coffee drying beds located on the right hand side
of the marquee. 2.3. Acquisition
of real measurements The acquisition
of real measurements concerning the marquee, where it is evident the front
view (Figure 9), right side view (Figure 10), left side view (Figure 11) and
internal part (Figure 12).
Figure 9. Dimensioned front view. 
Figure
10. Dimensioned right side view.
Figure
11. Dimensioned left side view.
Figure
12. Internal view of the marquee. 2.4. 3D survey For taking
measurements of the different components of the marquee, it is proceeded to
make the survey in three dimensions; for this it is required an interactive
software and different applications, both for learning technical drawing and
for engineering analysis; SolidWorks is chosen [14].
In the following, it is detailed the front (Figure 13), right side (Figure
14), upper (Figure 15) and isometric (Figure 16) views. 
Figure
13. Front view of the marquee.
Figure 14. Right side view
of the marquee.
Figure
15. Upper view of the marquee. 
Figure 16. Isometric view made with the SolidWorks software. 2.5.
Architectural presentation For a better finish and future projection of a scale prototype, the model made by SolidWorks is converted to a real environment using the Rendering software [15] applied in the architectural field. Figures 17 and 18 present the isometric design made by Rendering.
Figure
17. Marquee designed by Rendering.
Figure
18. Isometric view of the marquee. 
2.6. Materials
and costs In parallel with
taking the measurements, a revision of the materials that constitute the
marquee was carried out. Table 1 presents the main
elements. Table 1. Materials implemented in the marquee
The estimated costs of the materials that are available in the
domestic market are indicated in Table 2. 2.7.
Experimental design The results of
the analyses and the graphs regarding drying time and efficiency,
were obtained from the statistical software STATGRAPHICS Centurion XV (Trial
version 16.1.18) [16]. A factorial design of one or various factors was used as the experimental design. The theory of the
efficiency of the collector of Duffie and Beckmen [17] was established in
the thermal study. The following equation (1) is utilized
for calculating the thermal efficiency of a greenhouse.
Where n_{empty} is the percentage of
thermal efficiency of the empty greenhouse, C_{p}
is the air specific heat (kJ/kg °C); ma, mass flow of air; T_{0},
initial temperature of the greenhouse; T_{i},
final temperature of the greenhouse; A_{s} area of the greenhouse and
I_{s} is the solar intensity on the wall
and roof of the greenhouse. 
Table 2. Costs of materials employed
3. Results and
discussion 3.1. Analysis of
the structural coupling The software
engineering techniques are utilized for modeling
systems, specially the design and simulation of tunnel greenhouses.
Traditional concepts of object oriented technology, are focused on developing
software based on software engineering components, similar to the modelbased
design, the specification of the components and standards, applying the use
of libraries and the reutilization of design structures [18, 19]. All these
techniques are common in the design of greenhouses, as indicated in Figure
19. Figures 20 and 21 present the structure of the marquee made by
SolidWorks, detailing the design of the coupling of assembly in the corners
and in the rear part, indicating the type of tube and its specifications,
with the purpose of providing an easy access of assembling and disassembling
for its quick mobilization. When there is the need to model multitunnel
greenhouses, methods that include concepts of reutilization, class hierarchy
and succession are applied, which enable the user to have available different
technological applications, with the purpose of constructing a series of
basic blocks for manufacturing 
greenhouses, once the
design has been revised. From this point of view, a greenhouse is no more
than a series of blocks adapted to a space; the efficiency in the use of such
space constitutes a critical issue [20].
Figure 19. ASome software engineering techniques for
greenhouse modeling [18].
Figure
20. Coupling of assembly of the marquee.
Figure
21. Detail of the structure. 
3.2. Analysis of the shelving At present, the
unified modeling language (UML) is utilized in different engineering
disciplines for modeling systems, which enables to understand and describe
the structure and operation of a system under study; for example, the UML is
utilized in industrial systems: automotive sector [21, 22], teleoperation
[20], robotics [22, 23], and production systems for monitoring [24].
Therefore, UML has been employed in the agricultural
sector as a complementary technique for modeling greenhouses. The technique of Computer Aided Design (CAD) is used
for the analysis of the shelving, as indicated in Figure 22, which shows the
length and height, Figure 23, which shows the separation of the coffee drying
beds and the type of tube employed with its specifications. At last, Figure
24 details an isometric view of the shelving constituted by six drying beds,
and specifies the composite material and its dimensions.
Figure
22. Dimensions of the coffee drying beds.
Figure
23. Distance between columns of drying beds. 
Figure 24. Isometric view of the shelving and its
specifications. 3.3. Analysis,
moisture – coffee drying time In order to
estimate the relationship between moisture and coffee drying time, it is
proceeded to perform a statistical analysis of linear regression, due to the
little curvature exhibited by the plots in Figure 25, setting the moisture
(%) as the dependent variable and the drying time (days) as the independent
variable. Figure 25 indicates the plot of the model fitted, moisture – drying
time, setting equations (2) and (3) as such model.
Figure 25. Plot of the fitted model moisture – drying time. 
Table 3 presents the coefficients of the relationship moisture –
drying time, where it is shown the estimated and
incorrect parameters of the coffee drying. Table 3. Coefficients, moisture – drying time
From the
statistical analysis, the following values were obtained: • Correlation
coefficient = –0.952588 • Rsquared =
90,7424 % • Rsquared, (titted for g. l.) = 89.5852 % • Standar error ofthe estimate =
6.28562 • Mean absolute
error = 4.83571 • DurbinWatson
Statistical = 0.587605 (P = 0.0005) •
Autocorrelation of residues in delay 1 = 0.60396 It can be seen in Table 4 that the Pvalue is
smaller than 0.05, which indicates that there is a significant statistical
relationship between moisture and drying time, with a confidence level of
95.0 %. Table 4. Analysis of variance moisturedrying time of the coffee
The statistical parameter Rsquared indicates the fitted model,
showing a 90.7424 % of variability in the moisture, and consequently the
correlation coefficient is equal to 0.952588, which indicates a relatively
strong relationship between the variables. The estimated standard error shows
that the standard deviation of the residues is 6.28562 and the mean absolute
error is 4.83571, since it is the average value of the residues. The DurbinWatson (DW) statistical analysis indicates the residues
with the purpose of determining if there is any significant correlation based
in the order in which the collected data are presented.
Since the Pvalue is smaller than 0.05, there is an indication of a
possible serial correlation with a confidence level of 95.0 %, which means
that the smaller the drying time in the greenhouse, the greater the
percentage of moisture. 
3.4. Analysis,
Drying area – production In places in
which the solar drying has yearly productions smaller than 500 arrobas of
dried parchment coffee, they usually occupy drying places such as marquees,
canopies or parabolic dryers [25]. Table 5 presents a statistical summary
showing the average and standard deviation of the samples. It should be taken into account that there is a difference of
more than 3 to 1 between the smallest and largest standard deviations. This
may cause problems because the analysis of variance assumes that the standard
deviation of all the levels is equal, thus, the production of coffee in
quintals is increasing. Table 5. Statistical summary of the drying area and
production
Table 6 presents an ANOVA table, which decomposes the variance of the
data in two components: one between groups and another inside groups. The Fratio, which in this case is equal to 5.54178, is the
quotient between the estimate between groups and the estimate inside groups,
since the Pvalue of the Ftest is smaller than 0.05; there is a
statistically significant difference between the means of the three variables
with a confidence level of 95 %, and thus, they are valid and accurate
statistical samples in the production of coffee. Table 6. Anova table
Table 7 shows the mean for each column of the obtained data, and the
standard error of each mean, which is a measure of the variability of the
sampling. The standard error indicates a result of dividing the pooled
standard deviation by the number of observations in each level. In addition,
it also marks a sample of interval around each mean. 
Table 7. Table of means with confidence intervals of 95%
The intervals currently shown are based in
the procedure of the least significant difference (LSD) of Fisher; it is
constructed in such a way that, if two means are equal, their intervals will
overlap 95 % of the times, which can be graphically observed in Figure 26. Figure 27 indicates the relationship of the drying area with the
production in arrobas of dried parchment coffee; it presents that in a drying
area of 18 m^{2} of the marquee it can be produced around 1500 kg
yearly.
Figure 26. Graph of means and of the 95 % of Fisher LSD.
Figure 27. Boxandwhisker plot of the areaproduction
relationship. 3.5. Directional
field of the heat flow inside the marquee When Newton’s
law is considered to study the effect with which a body reaches the internal
temperature, as it is the case of the coffee bean inside the marquee, the
tempera 
ture T of the coffee bean and the ambient temperature T_{a} are considered.
Equation (4) is employed for studying the field of
directions of the heat flow inside the marquee.
Constant K is the thermal conductivity of the medium, considering a
controlled environment of 0,02 . The
initial condition of the problem will be T(t_{0})
= T_{0}. The particular solution of the equation for time t_{0}
= 0. (Equation 5).
From the measured temperature data inside the marquee
it was established aT_{a} = 82Ľ,
considering that there are not adiabatic losses for the analysis. The
representation of the field of directions for the autonomous continuous
ordinary differential equation (Equation 6, Equation 7) is
shown in Figure 28, employing a set of meshed points. It can be
appreciated an equilibrium point at the ambient temperature inside the
marquee. It also occurs that the points below this point behave as attractor
points that have an exponential growth.
Figure 28. Plot of the directional field for the direction of
heat inside the marquee. 
4. Conclusions The use of the
marquee is applied to the drying of agricultural
products, highlighting the drying of coffee, due to its great potential from
the experimental and energy saving viewpoints. There are different types of
solar dryers that have been designed and developed in some
agroindustry sectors, producing different degrees of technical performance.
The modular couplings made after the planimetric
survey, have enabled to improve its mobility and adaptability. The values obtained regarding the relationship moisture and drying
time of the coffee, exhibited a linear regression statistical analysis,
setting the moisture as the dependent variable and the drying time as the
independent variable resulting in a fitted model, showing a reduction of
moisture with an increase of drying. In the analysis of variance of the moisture
with respect to the drying of coffee it was obtained
a Pvalue smaller than 0.05, which indicates that
there is a significant statistical relationship between moisture and drying
time with a confidence level of 95 %. In the analysis of production with respect to the
drying area it was made a statistical summary based on an average of samples
and standard deviation, and it was obtained a difference of more than 3 to 1
between the smallest and the largest standard deviations, thus it is assumed
that the standard deviations of all levels are equal, providing a growth in
the production of coffee. It was
performed a variance of the data in two components: between groups and inside
groups, giving a statistically significant difference between the means of
the three variables with a confidence level of 95 %, indicating that the data
obtained are valid and convenient statistical samples in the production of
coffee. The intervals of moisture and drying area indicate the relationship of
drying area with the production in arrobas of dried parchment coffee, for a
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